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School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-Multicultural Education

The rich diversity of today's society is clearly evident in many classrooms today. It is no longer enough to educate some of our children. Schools and learning environments must work for all and must reflect the cultures of the communities they serve.

New Horizons for Learning has always had a strong multicultural and international foundation and we continue to learn much from our communication with other countries and the different cultures within our own. We invite your comments and contributions to this site.

Articles, Recommended Reading, and Related Links


The Scope of Multicultural Education
Mary Stone Hanley
What is multicultural education today?

Diversity Within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society
James A. Banks
Banks' Essential Principles are designed to help educational practitioners in all types of schools increase student academic achievement and improve intergroup skills.

Assessment Equity in a Multicultural Society
Asa G. Hilliard III-Baffour Amankwatia II
One of America's leading authorities on multicultural education discusses the importance of considering the cultural background of students in assessing their learning.

"Allowing" Race in the Classroom: Students Existing in the Fullness of Their Beings
Julie A. Helling
Experience teaching in an undergraduate Law and Diversity Program provides insight into the racism that is still prevalent in our learning structures. Full attention must be given to the need to let students of color exist in the fullness of their life experiences, rather than stifling these experiences.

Recreating Schools for all Children
John Morefield
In this article, the author identifies twelve characteristics of successful schools, and the common mistakes made by well-meaning educators that get in the way of success.

Learning to Listen through Home Visits with Somali, Mien, Cambodian, Vietnamese and Latino Families
Betty J. Cobbs and Margery B. Ginsberg
This article describes a summer learning experience that helped educational leaders listen to and learn from underrepresented voices. It provides a mosaic of insights contributed by 24 doctoral students from the University of Washington's Leadership for Learning (L4L) superintendent program.

Collaborating with Multicultural Students and Families, Hawai'i Style
Paul D. Deering, et al
Involving families in children's learning is important for all schools, but it is particularly important, and often hardest to accomplish, in low-income and culturally diverse contexts. Both the import and difficulty of such collaboration are further increased in the education of young adolescents, students between the ages of ten and fifteen who are facing the challenges of puberty. Middle grades educators in the highly diverse state of Hawai'i have achieved some success in home-school collaboration through proactiveness, innovation, inclusiveness, respect and, of course, food.

The Wounded Knee International Youth Project: Creating a Sustainable Way of Life for the Next Seven Generations
Robert White Mountain, Johanna Parry Cougar and Corrina McFarlane
The authors describe a successful program for empowering Lakota youth by instilling in them a sense of belonging, purpose, and accomplishment.

Standing Tall at Inchelium
Carmen Peone
The Rez Stop (Raising our Educational Zone, Standing Tall On Pride)Director of Inchelium School for Native Americans strives to give children the best possible opportunities for educational and spiritual growth.

John Stanford International School in Seattle
Michele Anciaux Aoki and Sue Ranney
A review of the Stanford International School and how it is fulfilling its mission to be a truly international school with a focus on academic excellence.

International Public Schools in Seattle
Michele Anciaux Aoki and Sue Ranney
The director for Washington State Coalition for International Education offers an update on the progress of John Stanford International School and Hamilton International Middle School in Seattle, Washington.

Connecting Deeply with your Global Classmates around the World
Greg Tuke
The President of the Global Classmates Initiative describes how this new program creates cross-cultural and contextual learning experiences for students in Washington State with fellow students in developing countries.

Antioch's Efforts to Develop Culturally Congruent Teacher Education
Linda Campbell
In an effort to attract minority candidates into the teaching force, Linda Campbell wrote a Washington State grant in 1993 to implement a teacher preparation program on-site at the Tulalip Indian Reservation in northwestern Washington State. The grant included forging a three-way alliance between Antioch University, the Tulalip Tribes, and the Marysville School District which provides public education for Tulalip Indian children. The process of developing a program founded on elements of the culture it seeks to serve is one of several challenges Antioch is facing.

A Blueprint for Action III NCEBC
National Council on Educating Black Children
This important document draws on "effective schools" research pioneered by the late Dr. Ron Edmonds and on the concept that all children can learn. If offers a concrete program of action items and implementation activities that public school districts and communities can recommend to their stakeholders. The report offers a collaborative means of solving problems and accelerating achievement for all children, and Black children in particular.

A Culturally Relevant Lesson for African American Students
Mary Stone Hanley
At the center of culturally relevant instruction is the culture of the learner. To develop an instructional program that is relevant to students educators need to understand the core beliefs and experiences of their culture.

A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education
C. N. Le
Many statistics show that Asian Americans are still the targets of racial inequality and institutional discrimination and that the "model minority" image is a myth.

The Hispanic Dilemma: What Are We Doing About It?
Alejandra G. Rodriguez
We need to strive to work within Hispanic/Latino culture and community in order to foster learning and nurture participation in the educational system in the U.S.

Multicultural Children's Literature: Creating and Applying an Evaluation Tool in Response to the Needs of Urban Educators
Jennifer Johnson Higgins
The author examines multicultural children's literature and provides an evaluation of numerous pieces.

The Interdisciplinary Project Model: A Workable Response to the Challenges of Multicultural Education In Our Nation's Secondary Schools Jere Mendelsohn and Fredrick J. Baker
The authors share some successful ways to teach culturally diverse populations.

Multicultural Science Education: Myths, Legends, and Moon Phases
Andrea B. Freed, Ph.D.
A culturally diverse science lesson plan.

Bridges to Understanding
Phil Borges
Bridges is an on-line classroom program connecting children from indigenous and tribal cultures with their contemporaries in North America for the purpose of exploring and preserving cultural diversity.

Students and Teachers Discover New Tools for Thinking
Lorna Williams
For many years, the Vancouver, BC school district has been providing Instrumental Enrichment training to school and district staff, and to students. Teachers are experiencing changes in their learning and are reflecting on their own learning approaches, preferences, and styles. Students and teachers are taking more risks and seeking new challenges. I.E. has not been an easy method for anyone to learn, but the results have been fruitful beyond their wildest expectations, with students and teachers of all cultures.

Global Village School: Lessons in Peace, Diversity and Social Change Marsha K. Chandler
How the Global Village School developed its program to help students to learn social awareness and personal responsibility.

Lessons from an Inuit Community on Baffin Island
Ellen Weber, Ph.D.
Weber shares her story of eighteen months spent teaching and learning from Inuit teachers on Baffin Island. "Through my Inuit students' lives and our work together, I experienced how environment shapes and colors human learning."

The Power of Curiosity in the Formation of a Teacher: Overseas Student Teaching
Rosalie M. Romano and Stacy Simonyi
This article explores the impact of overseas student teaching on a teacher candidate two years after the experience. Curiosity is identified as a key motivator in each stage of this teacher's growth and development, from making the decision to go abroad to student teach, to preparing for the experience, and then reflecting on how she was transformed as a teacher by teaching overseas.

Educating Global Citizens in a Diverse World
James A. Banks
With the growing ethnic, cultural, racial, language and religious diversity throughout the world, citizenship education needs to be changed to give students the knowledge, attitudes, and skills required to function in their cultural communities and beyond their cultural borders.

The Merge of Global Awareness and Classroom Culture: Helping Future Teachers Meet New Challenges
Camille A. Allen and George P. Antone
Colleges and universities must provide future teachers with the opportunity to learn how to prepare American students to meet the demands of globalization and the increasing interdependency among nations. The Office of International Programs of Salve Regina University has designed several ways to help future teachers to study abroad and study international content as undergraduates thus making them better suited to meet the challenges of teaching increasingly diverse students.

King Middle School: A Composite of Successful Multicultural Schools Margery B. Ginsberg
King Middle School educators, parents, and community members work together as an adult learning community to study, develop, and apply highly motivating, cultural responsive pedagogy to support the academic accomplishment of all students. See the success they've created and its components as a result of this collaboration.

Redefining Citizenship for Our Multicultural World
Nancy Bacon
The "melting pot" model of the past is being challenged because of globalization and divided economic loyalties, and a new definition of citizenship for our new world order will better serve all students as they look to join a world that extends well beyond our national borders.

How Can We Eradicate Illiteracy without Eradicating Illiterates?
Munir Fasheh
The author helps us see beyond the deficit label of illiterate and struggles with the question of how to help ensure that the illiterate does not lose the knowledge of learning, knowing and expressing that they already have when they become literate.

Schools Can't Do It Alone: A Broader Conception of Equality of Educational Opportunity
Gregory J. Fritzberg
After defining equal education opportunity and its requirements, the author assesses the current standards-based reform movement and provides the fairest way to organize society's institutions to provide all students with the opportunity for an education.

Increasing the Achievement of Native American Youth at Early College High Schools
Linda Campbell, Keith Egawa, and Geneva Wortman
Early College's 70 pilot sites are small, personalized secondary schools where 150 to 400 students earn an associate's degree concurrently with their high school diplomas. Early College students are low-income youth, first generation college-goers, English language learners, and minority students, those who have been underrepresented in higher education.

Cognitive Enrichment of Culturally Different Students: Feuerstein's Theory
Alex Kozulin, et al
Concern for the culturally different child lies at the very basis of Feuerstein's Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) theory and its applied systems.

The Multicultural Classroom: Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Children Burna Dunn and Myrna Ann Adkins
The cultural adjustment issues that limited English speaking children often bring to the classroom, some of the choices teachers have to make when managing the classroom, and tips on how to promote effective and efficient learning are discussed.

In Times of Drought
Zaid Hassan
The Unfolding Learning Societies Conference was a culmination (but not the end) of three years of research and experimentation on what a learning society might be. They came together to explore their common passion to understand how best to extend ideas of learning from the school to the diversity of life, re-linking learning to real issues.

Art and Multicultural Education: Building Commitment to Social Justice One Brick at a Time
Reva Joshee
The author discusses her integration of arts-based methods into her teaching of pre-service teacher education programs and why she believes this method is important to working with teacher candidates to develop a commitment to social justice.

Reflections on the Possibility of Culturally Competent Conversation
Gary R. Howard
Attempts to have honest and courageous conversations on topics of difference often become polarized by two world views. If we define cultural competence as the ability to form authentic relationships across our differences, then a beginning point in the journey toward cultural competence would surely require us to find a way to talk productively with one another about issues of race, culture, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and the many other dimensions of difference.

Technology and Education Without Barriers: A Profile of the Latino Technology Foundation
Scott Larson
The Latino Technology Foundation provides computer training, seminars, scholarships and community programs aimed specifically at the Latino population.

Africa: An Educational Renaissance Has Begun
Fred Mednick
54 countries and 800 million citizens strong, Africa has made significant progress in the last forty years. And even more progress is coming with education.

Challenges for Multicultural Education in Japan
Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu
Because Japan is becoming a society composed of people of multinational origins, the country now confronts issues such as inclusion of other languages in the school curriculum.

Schools Are Not Private Places Like Our Homes: Diversity, Democracy, and Education
Walter C. Parker
Schools are ideal sites for multicultural democratic education because they have within them congregations of diverse students. This diversity is their main asset when it comes to multicultural democratic education.

Exploring Human Behavior in the Classroom
David Wolsk
By making eduational experiences personal and real, students gain a more lasting and generalized learning experience.

Recommended Reading


Diversity Within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching And Learning in a Multicultural Society James A. Banks, Peter Cookson, Geneva Gay, Willis D. Hawley, Jacqueline Jordan Irvine, Sonia Nieta, Janet Schofield, and Walter Stephan

Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education James Banks and Cherry A. McGee Banks, editors

Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives James A. Banks, ed.

Teaching to Change the World Jeannie Oakes and Martin Lipton

Mindful Learning: 101 Proven Strategies for Student and Teacher Success Linda Campbell

Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies James Banks

Teaching Democracy: Unity and Diversity in Public Life Walter C. Parker

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory and Practice Geneva Gay

Related Links

Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington
The Center focuses on research projects and activities designed to improve practice related to equity issues, intergroup relations, and the achievement of students of color.

Critical Issues in Preservice Education: Educating Teachers for Diversity Linked to NCREL's Pathways to School Improvement , Educating Teachers for Diversity identifies key elements of effective teacher education for diversity, identifies exemplary practices with case studies, and provides links to web resources.

The Multicultural Pavilion at Curry School of Education
One of the most comprehensive collections of information on multicultural education. Contains wealth of resources, articles and links. Developed at the University of Virginia.

CARTS: Cultural Arts Resources for Teachers and Students
This is a commercial site, but does have some free resources for teachers.

Teaching Tolerance
A curriculum for K-12 classrooms.

Multicultural Perspectives in Mathematics Education
Multicultural Perspectives in Mathematics Education is maintained by the Department of Mathematics Education at the University of Georgia as a tool for furthering an understanding of multicultural perspectives in mathematics education. Look for an Annotated Bibliography.

© December 2002

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